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History of nursing models

Posted on:3/24/2006
The original role of the nurse was primarily to care for the patient as prescribed by a physician.



The original role of the nurse was primarily to care for the patient as prescribed by a physician. This evolved into the biomedical model of nursing care which still strongly influences nursing practice today. The biomedical model focusses heavily upon pathophysiology and altered homeostasis but fails to identify individual differences and whilst it works well for traditional medical and physical care, it focusses solely on the treatment of disease, making little account of psychological, sociocultural, or politcoeconomic differences between individuals. The Biomedical Model essentially views all patients with the same disease as the same problem regardless of their religion, culture, or ethnicity. This is in contrast to the social model of healthcare that places emphasis on changes that can be made in society and in people's own lifestyles to make the population healthier.

The first theorist to clearly articulate a role of nurses distinct from the medical profession was Florence Nightingale. Her theories were developed during the Crimean War and published in Notes on Nursing:What It Is, and What It Is Not in 1859. Nightingale's model is based on the idea that the nurse manipulates the environment to promote the patient's well being.

Nurses quickly realised that treating patients based upon their disease rather than making a holistic assessment was not a satisfactory way of attending patient care.


 


  
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